# mathematics

## A Quote by Albert Einstein on certainty, laws, mathematics, and reality

As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.

Source: J. R. Newman (ed.) The World of Mathematics, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956.

Contributed by: Zaady

## A Quote by Alfred Jules Ayer on certainty, facts, logic, mathematics, principles, purity, purpose, questions, and virtue

A point which is not sufficiently brought out by Russell, if indeed it is recognized by him at all, is that every logical proposition is valid in its own right. Its validity does not depend upon its being incorporated in a system, and deduced from certain propositions which are taken as self-evident. The construction of systems of logic is useful as a means of discovering and certifying analytic propositions, but it is not in principle essential even for this purpose. For it is possible to conceive of a symbolism in which every analytic proposition could be seen to be analytic in virtue of its form alone. The fact that the validity of an analytic proposition in no way depends on its being deducible from other analytic propositions is our justification for disregarding the question whether the propositions of mathematics are reducible to propositions of formal logic, in the way that Russell supposed (1919, chap. 2). For even if it is the case that the definition of a cardinal number as a class of classes similar to a given class is circular, and it is not possible to reduce mathematical notions to purely logical notions, it will still remain true that the propositions of mathematics are analytic propositions. They will form a special class of analytic propositions, containing special terms, but they will be none the less analytic for that. For the criterion of an analytic proposition is that its validity should follow simply from the definition of the terms contained in it, and this condition is fulfilled by the propositions of pure mathematics.

Source: Language Truth and Logic, Ayer, Ch.4, p.108

Contributed by: Zaady

## A Quote by Agatha Christie on exercise, mathematics, men, questions, thinking, and work

"I think you're begging the question," said Haydock, "and I can see looming ahead one of those terrible exercises in probability where six men have white hats and six men have black hats and you have to work it out by mathematics how likely it is that the hats will get mixed up and in what proportion. If you start thinking about things like that, you would go round the bend. Let me assure you of that!"

Source: The Mirror Crack'd. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1962.

Contributed by: Zaady

## A Quote by Adrian Mathesis on mathematics and people

The greatest unsolved theorem in mathematics is why some people are better at it than others.

Source: H. Eves Return to Mathematical Circles, Boston: Prindle, Weber and Schmidt, 1988.

Contributed by: Zaady

## A Quote by Abraham Kaplan on mathematics

Mathematics is not yet capable of coping with the naivete of the mathematician himself.

Source: Sociology Learns the Language of Mathematics.

Contributed by: Zaady